|Title||An Evaluation of Haptic Cues on the Tele-Operator’s Perceptual Awareness of Multiple UAVs’ Environments|
|Publication Type||Conference Paper|
|Year of Publication||2011|
|Authors||Son, HI, Kim, J, Chuang, LL, Franchi, A, Robuffo Giordano, P, Lee, D, Bülthoff, HH|
|Conference Name||IEEE World Haptics Conference|
|Conference Location||Istanbul, Turkey|
|Keywords||Evaluation, Force feedback, Haptics, Multi-robot systems, Psychophysics, Teleoperation|
The use of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is increasingly being incorporated into a wide range of teleoperation applications. To date, relevant research has largely been focused on the development of appropriate control schemes. In this paper, we extend previous research by investigating how control performance could be improved by providing the teleoperator with haptic feedback cues. First, we describe a control scheme that allows a teleoperator to manipulate the ﬂight of multiple UAVs in a remote environment. Next, we present three designs of haptic cue feedback that could increase the teleoperator’s environmental awareness of such a remote environment. These cues are based on the UAVs’ i) velocity information, ii) proximity to obstacles, and iii) a combination of these two sources of information. Finally, we present an experimental evaluation of these haptic cue designs. Our evaluation is based on the teleoperator’s perceptual sensitivity to the physical environment inhabited by the multiple UAVs. We conclude that a teleoperator’s perceptual sensitivity is best served by haptic feedback cues that are based on the velocity information of multiple UAVs.